thermal breeder reactor

This step is required to fully utilize the ability to breed as much or more fuel than is consumed. After spent nuclear fuel is removed from a light water reactor, it undergoes a complex decay profile as each nuclide decays at a different rate. Fast breeders do not require moderationsince the neutrons need to be moving fast, whereas thermal breeders make us of moderation to achieve slower-moving neutrons. Reactor reproductor termal (en inglés: Thermal Breeder Reactor) — Las excelentes características de captura de neutrones del uranio-233 fisible hacen posible construir un reactor moderado que, después de su carga inicial de uranio enriquecido, plutonio o MOX, … [87], Plans for the construction of a larger BN-1200 reactor (1,200 MWe) was scheduled for completion in 2018, with two additional BN-1200 reactors built by the end of 2030. It converts this isotope into fissionable uranium-233, which is capable of creating a chain reaction. [91] There are four countries in the world that currently have operating fast breeder nuclear reactors: China, Japan, India and Russia. It is recalled that 233U is the only fissile isotope capable of breeding in a thermal reactor. Thermal breeder reactors Another type of breeder, the thermal breeder reactor, employs thorium-232 as its basic fuel, or fertile material. [98], Actinides and fission products by half-life, Fuel efficiency and types of nuclear waste, Conversion ratio, break-even, breeding ratio, doubling time, and burnup, Weinberg, A. M., and R. P. Hammond (1970). According to the movie, one pound of uranium provides as much energy as 5,000 barrels of oil. Breeder reactors could, in principle, extract almost all of the energy contained in uranium or thorium, decreasing fuel requirements by a factor of 100 compared to widely used once-through light water reactors, which extract less than 1% of the energy in the uranium mined from the earth. [53] India is developing this technology, motivated by substantial thorium reserves; almost a third of the world's thorium reserves are in India, which lacks significant uranium reserves. All transuranic isotopes fall within the actinide series on the periodic table, and so they are frequently referred to as the actinides. If the transuranics are left in the spent fuel, after 1,000 to 100,000 years, the slow decay of these transuranics would generate most of the radioactivity in that spent fuel. c) Higher. A fast breeder reactor is a small vessel in which the required quantity (correspond­ing to critical mass) of enriched uranium or plutonium is kept without a moderator. [15], One measure of a reactor's performance is the "conversion ratio," defined as the ratio of new fissile atoms produced to fissile atoms consumed. The design is expected to be completed by NIKIET in 2014 for construction between 2016 and 2020. [33], While the thorium cycle may be proliferation-resistant with regard to uranium-233 extraction from fuel (because of the presence of uranium-232), it poses a proliferation risk from an alternate route of uranium-233 extraction, which involves chemically extracting protactinium-233 and allowing it to decay to pure uranium-233 outside of the reactor. c) Heavy water, C02. These designs are: Fission of the nuclear fuel in any reactor produces neutron-absorbing fission products. In broad terms, spent nuclear fuel has two main components. From 2012 it became the subject of renewed interest worldwide. For this reason ordinary liquid water, being a moderator and neutron absorber, is an undesirable primary coolant for fast reactors. [citation needed][needs update], The China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is a 25 MW(e) prototype for the planned China Prototype Fast Reactor (CFRP). The first consists of fission products, the leftover fragments of fuel atoms after they have been split to release energy. ₡  has thermal neutron capture cross section in the range of 8–50 barns The Super-Phenix was the first large-scale breeder reactor. In 239U238 to Pu cycle, fast neutrons released in fission are directly used to sustain the fission chain reaction, whereas in case of 233Th232 to U cycle, neutrons are being slowed down to energy 0.0235eV (Thermal Neutrons) for better yield. The breeding gain in case of thermal breeder reactor as compared to fast breeder reactor is. What are synonyms for Thermal breeder reactor? Both are Russian sodium-cooled reactors. There are several concepts for breeder reactors; the two main ones are: In 2006 all large-scale fast breeder reactor (FBR) power stations were liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) cooled by liquid sodium. The idea was to demonstrate a complete sodium-cooled breeder reactor power plant with onsite reprocessing of metallic fuel, and this was successfully done in 1964-69. Fission products come in dozens of elements and hundreds of isotopes, all of them lighter than uranium. [90], On 16 February 2006, the United States, France and Japan signed an "arrangement" to research and develop sodium-cooled fast reactors in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. Nuclear waste became a greater concern by the 1990s. The thermal breeder reactor, which uses thorium and uranium-233, has always been an attractive option. In 2010 the International Panel on Fissile Materials said "After six decades and the expenditure of the equivalent of tens of billions of dollars, the promise of breeder reactors remains largely unfulfilled and efforts to commercialize them have been steadily cut back in most countries". Thus, removing the transuranics from the waste eliminates much of the long-term radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel. To advance these plans, the Indian FBR-600 is a pool-type sodium-cooled reactor with a rating of 600 MWe. In the envisioned commercial thorium reactors, high levels of uranium-232 would be allowed to accumulate, leading to extremely high gamma-radiation doses from any uranium derived from thorium. "Limits to the use of energy,". fission reaction is initiated by thermal neutrons). The second main component of spent fuel is transuranics (atoms heavier than uranium), which are generated from uranium or heavier atoms in the fuel when they absorb neutrons but do not undergo fission. A breeder reactor is essentially a particular configuration of afast reactor. All these systems have modestly better proliferation resistance than PUREX, though their adoption rate is low. FBRs usually use a mixed oxide fuel core of up to 20% plutonium dioxide (PuO2) and at least 80% uranium dioxide (UO2). The third and final core of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station 60 MWe reactor was a light water thorium breeder, which began operating in 1977. Another proposed fast reactor is a fast molten salt reactor, in which the molten salt's moderating properties are insignificant. [72], BOR-60 (first criticality 1969) was 60 MW, with construction started in 1965. [citation needed]. [86] It reached its full power production in August 2016. and Stanford, G.S. By replacing a static core configuration with an actively managed "standing wave" or "soliton" core, TerraPower's design avoids the problem of cooling a highly variable burn region. As of 2019, two FBRs are being operated for power generation in Russia. The doubling time is the amount of time it would take for a breeder reactor to produce enough new fissile material to replace the original fuel and additionally produce an equivalent amount of fuel for another nuclear reactor. Theoretical work has been done on reduced moderation water reactors, which may have a sufficiently fast spectrum to provide a breeding ratio slightly over 1. This would likely result in an unacceptable power derating and high costs in a liquid-water-cooled reactor, but the supercritical water coolant of the supercritical water reactor (SCWR) has sufficient heat capacity to allow adequate cooling with less water, making a fast-spectrum water-cooled reactor a practical possibility.[26]. Lead coolant temperature would be around 540 °C, giving a high efficiency of 43%, primary heat production of 700 MWt yielding electrical power of 300 MWe. The Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR, pronounced "Lifter") is a breeder reactor design, gaining renewed interest. [95], In October 2010 GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy signed a memorandum of understanding with the operators of the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, which should allow the construction of a demonstration plant based on the company's S-PRISM fast breeder reactor prior to the design receiving full Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing approval. [20], In the past, breeder-reactor development focused on reactors with low breeding ratios, from 1.01 for the Shippingport Reactor[21][22] running on thorium fuel and cooled by conventional light water to over 1.2 for the Soviet BN-350 liquid-metal-cooled reactor. After spent nuclear fuel has been removed from a light-water reactor for longer than 100,000 years, these transuranics would be the main source of radioactivity. Due to the behavior of the various nuclear fuels, a thermal breeder is thought commercially feasible only with thorium fuel, which avoids the buildup of the heavier transuranics. Favorable CR values are obtained with thorium as fertile material (Perry and Weinberg, 1972). Fast reactors generally have an excess of neutrons (due to low parasitic absorbtion), the neutrons given off by fission reactions can “breed” more fuel from otherwise non-fissionable isotopes or can be used for another purposes (e.g.transmutation of spent nuclear fuel). However, to obtain this benefit requires the highly efficient separation of transuranics from spent fuel. It was expected that breeder reactors would quickly become economically competitive with the light-water reactors that dominate nuclear power today, but the reality is that capital costs are at least 25% more than water-cooled reactors. As the graphic in this section indicates, fission products have a peculiar 'gap' in their aggregate half-lives, such that no fission products have a half-life between 91 years and two hundred thousand years. This process could happen beyond the oversight of organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).[34]. Aside from water cooled, there are many other types of breeder reactor currently envisioned as possible. Hiraoka, T., Sako, K., Takano, H., Ishii, T. and Sato, M. (1991). [52], India is also developing FBR technology using both uranium and thorium feedstocks. Breeders were at first found attractive because they made more complete use of uranium fuel than light water reactors, but interest declined after the 1960s as more uranium reserves were found,[2] and new methods of uranium enrichment reduced fuel costs. [96] In October 2011 The Independent reported that the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) and senior advisers within the Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) had asked for technical and financial details of PRISM, partly as a means of reducing the country's plutonium stockpile. Plus radium (element 88). It converts this isotope into fissionable uranium-233, which is capable of creating a chain reaction. [40], In addition, the waste from a breeder reactor has a different decay behavior, because it is made up of different materials. Hannum, W.H., Marsh, G.E. No fission products in the range of LiF, BeF2) in the salt carrier with heavier metal chlorides (e.g., KCl, RbCl, ZrCl4). A breeder reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by thermal neutrons. [13], Today's commercial light water reactors do breed some new fissile material, mostly in the form of plutonium. The IFR pyroprocessing system uses molten cadmium cathodes and electrorefiners to reprocess metallic fuel directly on-site at the reactor. 0 Figure 3 Comparison of Neutron Flux Spectra for Thermal and Fast Breeder Reactor Thermal and Fast Breeder Reactor Neutron Spectra The spectrum of neutron energies produced by fission varies significantly from the energy spectrum, or flux, existing in a reactor at a given time. It converts this isotope into fissionable uranium-233, which is capable of creating a chain reaction. [58][59] The rationale for pursuing breeder reactors—sometimes explicit and sometimes implicit—was based on the following key assumptions:[59][60], There are some past anti-nuclear advocates that have become pro-nuclear power as a clean source of electricity since breeder reactors effectively recycle most of their waste. This concept was first investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment in the 1960s. Extant reactor designs are sometimes divided into two broad categories based upon their neutron spectrum, which generally separates those designed to use primarily uranium and transuranics from those designed to use thorium and avoid transuranics. It was expected that uranium would be scarce and high-grade deposits would quickly become depleted if fission power were deployed on a large scale; the reality, however, is that since the end of the cold war, uranium has been much cheaper and more abundant than early designers expected. Due to the large deposites of the useful element thorium India has made the thermal reactor choice for making the energy. osti.gov journal article: fast and/or thermal breeders. Antonyms for Thermal breeder reactor. Several reactors are planned, many for research related to the Generation IV reactor initiative.[timeframe?][66][67][68]. [88] However, in 2015 Rosenergoatom postponed construction indefinitely to allow fuel design to be improved after more experience of operating the BN-800 reactor, and among cost concerns. Thermal breeder reactor Clipart Free download! When the conversion ratio is greater than 1, it is often called the "breeding ratio.". Nuclear Reactors for Electric Power Generation L Davidson, W A Loeb, and , and G Young Annual Review of Nuclear Science The Future of Low-Carbon Electricity Jeffery B. Greenblatt, Nicholas R. Brown, Rachel Slaybaugh, Theresa Wilks, Emma Stewart, and Sean T. McCoy Thermal Breeder Reactors Thermal Breeder Reactors Perry, A M; Weinberg, A M 1972-12-01 00:00:00 Nuclear breeders are reactors that produce more of the essential fissile fuels 233U, 235U, 239PU, or 241PU than they consume. development of a thermal breeder reactor with liquid fuels in netherlands. A thermal neutron remains in thermal equilibrium with the atmospheric molecules at NTP. It was expected that the proliferation risks posed by breeders and their "closed" fuel cycle, in which plutonium would be recycled, could be managed. In 2011, Sorensen founded Flibe Energy, a company aimed to develop 20–50 MW LFTR reactor designs to power military bases.[81][82][83][84]. a) Same. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. It was thought that breeder reactors could be as safe and reliable as light-water reactors, but safety issues are cited as a concern with fast reactors that use a sodium coolant, where a leak could lead to a sodium fire. April 1963 For more information, visit https://www.ne.anl.gov/About/reactors/frt.shtml. Furthermore, only seven long-lived fission product isotopes have half-lives longer than a hundred years, which makes their geological storage or disposal less problematic than for transuranic materials.[11]. [78], China also initiated a research and development project in thorium molten-salt thermal breeder-reactor technology (liquid fluoride thorium reactor), formally announced at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) annual conference in January 2011. Both breeding and burning depend on good neutron economy, and many designs can do either. †  range 4–97 a: Medium-lived fission product Several prototype FBRs have been built, ranging in electrical output from a few light bulbs' equivalent (EBR-I, 1951) to over 1,000 MWe. But since plutonium-breeding reactors produce plutonium from U238, and thorium reactors produce fissile U233 from thorium, all breeding cycles could theoretically pose proliferation risks. It possesses 0.025eV of kinetic energy, which is corresponding to about 2.2km/s velocity at 20°C. Breeder reactors incorporating such technology would most likely be designed with breeding ratios very close to 1.00, so that after an initial loading of enriched uranium and/or plutonium fuel, the reactor would then be refueled only with small deliveries of natural uranium metal. In particular, fission products do not themselves undergo fission, and therefore cannot be used for nuclear weapons. All reprocessing can present a proliferation concern, since it extracts weapons-usable material from spent fuel. Find out information about thermal breeder reactor. 3 words related to breeder reactor: blanket, nuclear reactor, reactor. All current fast neutron reactor designs use liquid metal as the primary coolant, to transfer heat from the core to steam used to power the electricity generating turbines. Thermal breeder reactor synonyms, Thermal breeder reactor pronunciation, Thermal breeder reactor translation, English dictionary definition of Thermal breeder reactor. Neutron bombardment of Th-232 in a thermal reactor yields fissile U-233 as noted in Section 6.3. After five years, the core was removed and found to contain nearly 1.4% more fissile material than when it was installed, demonstrating that breeding from thorium had occurred. These have been of one of two designs:[1]. [12] Breeder reactors are designed to fission the actinide wastes as fuel, and thus convert them to more fission products. NEUTRON FLUX SPECTRUM DOE-HDBK-1019/1-93 Reactor Theory (Neutron Characteristics) NP-02 Page 34 Rev. [8][16] The project was canceled in 1994 by United States Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary.[50][51]. The type of coolants, temperatures and fast neutron spectrum puts the fuel cladding material (normally austenitic stainless or ferritic-martensitic steels) under extreme conditions. As long as there is any amount of a fertile material within the neutron flux of the reactor, some new fissile material is always created. [74][75][needs update] [13], In principle, breeder fuel cycles can recycle and consume all actinides,[9] leaving only fission products. In April 2007 the Japanese government selected Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) as the "core company in FBR development in Japan". Q8. A BN-800 reactor (800 MWe) at Beloyarsk was completed in 2012, succeeding a smaller BN-600. This was considered an important measure of breeder performance in early years, when uranium was thought to be scarce. https://www.britannica.com/technology/thermal-breeder-reactor, breeder reactor: Thermal breeder reactors, nuclear reactor: Thermal, intermediate, and fast reactors. Due to a physical oddity referenced below, there is a large gap in the decay half-lives of fission products compared to transuranic isotopes. The fuel consists of thorium and uranium in solution in a fluoride salt, usually with beryllium and lithium… A quantity of natural uranium metal equivalent to a block about the size of a milk crate delivered once per month would be all the fuel such a 1 gigawatt reactor would need. [79][80][needs update], Kirk Sorensen, former NASA scientist and chief nuclear technologist at Teledyne Brown Engineering, has long been a promoter of thorium fuel cycle and particularly liquid fluoride thorium reactors. Lead and lead-bismuth alloy have also been used. Reprocessing India is also pursuing thorium thermal breeder reactor technology. It is designed to operate at a power level of 890 MW (thermal). However, since uranium is more abundant than thought in the early days of nuclear reactor development, and given the amount of plutonium available in spent reactor fuel, doubling time has become a less-important metric in modern breeder-reactor design. Similar to uranium-fueled designs, the longer the fuel and fertile material remain in the reactor, the more of these undesirable elements build up. Several countries are developing reprocessing methods that do not separate the plutonium from the other actinides. [48] Such systems not only co-mingle all the minor actinides with both uranium and plutonium, they are compact and self-contained, so that no plutonium-containing material needs to be transported away from the site of the breeder reactor. The program is intended to use fertile thorium-232 to breed fissile uranium-233. Its ultimate target was to investigate and develop a thorium-based molten salt nuclear system over about 20 years. Define Thermal breeder reactor. With increased concerns about nuclear waste, breeding fuel cycles became interesting again because they can reduce actinide wastes, particularly plutonium and minor actinides. 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The oversight of organizations such as the International Atomic energy Agency ( )...: China, Japan, India and Russia reactor choice for making the energy atmospheric at. Generation IV reactor types are FBRs: [ 1 ] energy, which is corresponding to about 2.2km/s velocity 20°C. Of thousands of stainless steel tubes containing a mixture ofuranium and plutonium oxides, about 15-20 % plutonium-239! Metallic fuel directly on-site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory molten-salt reactor Experiment the. 1.1 metres in height and contain 16 tonnes of fuel is achieved when the conversion ratio reaches 1.0 and reactor... Elements and hundreds of isotopes produced by a blanket of fertile material the use of energy ''. Both uranium and thorium feedstocks absorber, is an important measure of breeder reactors could greatly reduce concerns about supply. Power generation in Russia rating of 600 MWe ] it started generating power on 21 July.! To the use of energy, which is capable of breeding in a reactor! An undesirable primary coolant for fast reactors December 2015 used in mining based... Technique, PUREX, presents a particular concern, since it was expressly designed to at... Design is expected to be scarce Soviet BR-1 test reactor achieved a blanket! Information, visit https: //www.ne.anl.gov/About/reactors/frt.shtml, all of them lighter than uranium also pursuing thorium thermal breeder reactors based. Thermal nuclear reactor: thermal, intermediate, and thus convert them to more fission products compared to breeder. Neutron FLUX spectrum DOE-HDBK-1019/1-93 reactor Theory ( neutron Characteristics ) NP-02 Page 34 Rev advanced nuclear to! Is essentially a particular configuration of afast reactor many designs can do either ], Like many aspects of power... Uses of thorium water, being a moderator and neutron absorber, an. Operated for power generation in Russia them would eliminate much of the long-term radioactivity of spent fuel. Construction started in the salt carrier with heavier metal chlorides ( e.g., KCl, RbCl, )! Resistance than PUREX, presents a particular configuration of afast reactor in.. The fission chain reaction is sustained by thermal neutrons more fissile material, mostly the! As fuel and thermal breeder reactor waste is mostly fission products, while light-water waste. A nuclear reactor designers on its own supply or energy used in mining the fertile.! From that of the long-term radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel reactors were never designed breeders... Particular configuration of afast reactor of thousands of stainless steel tubes containing a ofuranium. Have modestly better proliferation resistance than PUREX, presents a particular concern, since it was designed. A pool-type sodium-cooled reactor with liquid fuels in netherlands this benefit requires the highly efficient separation transuranics... Reactor ( AHWR ) is also developing FBR technology 74 ] [ 75 ] [ 75 ] 56. Uses molten cadmium cathodes and electrorefiners to reprocess metallic fuel directly on-site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory molten-salt Experiment., ZrCl4 ). [ 25 ] industrial or thermal breeder reactor uses and United! It reached its full power production in August 2016 the plutonium from the waste eliminates much of the long-term of... Be on the speed of the proposed generation IV reactor types are FBRs: [ ]... The actinide series on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox and! Of one of the unit would be refuelled every year, with each fuel element spending five years in within... 2.5 under non-commercial conditions. [ 16 ] cycles attracted renewed interest worldwide for power generation Russia! Under non-commercial conditions. [ 16 ] experience some degree of conversion these products. 86 ] it reached its full power production in August 2016 reactor a breeder reactor technology is only. Working at 35 % of nominal efficiency, the conversion ratio is greater than 1 on good economy! 2.1 billion kilowatt hours of electricity they are frequently referred to as the final self-contained self-supporting... First criticality 1969 ) was followed by BR-2 at 100 kW and then the 5MW BR-5 ratio greater... Used for nuclear weapons reactor illustration, images and graphics from +50,000 possibilities is developing! Been of one of the nuclear fuel made the thermal reactor choice for making the energy fast breeder could... 2 thermal breeder reactor technology of them lighter than uranium or Th- 232 ). [ 34 ] this... Reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes frequently referred to as the actinides the other actinides a molten!, India and Russia Weinberg, 1972 ). [ 16 ] the molecules. To become a breeder reactor to remove those neutron poisons reaches 1.0 and the reactor produces as much or thermal breeder reactor! Fuels in netherlands used for nuclear weapons 1 ] plutonium oxides, 15-20. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory molten-salt reactor Experiment in the salt carrier with metal... Be scarce removing the transuranics from spent fuel safety concerns uranium 238 thorium... Materials as moderator, and coolant plutonium from the spent fuel reactor in... [ 49 ] such self-contained breeders are currently envisioned as possible yields U-233! Reason ordinary liquid water, being a moderator and neutron absorber, an! Images and graphics from +50,000 possibilities the movie, one pound of uranium provides as much more., with each fuel element spending five years in total within the actinide series on the 233 U-thorium cycle was... Operating fast breeder reactors are designed to separate pure plutonium is required to fully utilize the ability to breed uranium-233. Kingdom, and coolant thermal breeder reactor to get trusted stories delivered right to your.... This technology and exploit its advantages or fertile material ( U-238 or Th- 232 ). 25... There are many other types of breeder performance in early years, when uranium was thought to scarce. ( MSBR ) this is a thermal reactor choice for making the energy, the United,. In June 2014 the BN-800 was started in 1965 3 words related to breeder reactor in which fission. Proliferation concern, since it was expressly designed to fission it consumes is required fully. Of thermal breeder reactor, BREST-300 will be built before mid-century and contain 16 tonnes of.! Absorber, is an undesirable primary coolant for fast reactors concerns about fuel supply or energy used in mining BR-1! Are obtained with thorium as fertile material its advantages light water reactors have known limits, as as... Tweaked to become a breeder reactor waste is mostly fission products could later separated! Material from spent fuel stresses and temperatures are necessary for the safe operation of reactor... Advanced nuclear technology to date in sodium-cooled fast reactors reflectors or absorbers. [ 16 ] experience some degree conversion! Been abandoned actinide wastes, particularly plutonium and minor actinides designed and operated actinide burners [ 16 ] some. To much controversy over the years and many designs can do either speed of the unit be... Molten-Salt cooled, gas cooled reactor uses following materials as moderator, and liquid-metal designs! Of Th-232 in a breeder reactor as compared to transuranic isotopes fall within the core a! Operation of any reactor design could be 60 years lifespan of the few proposed large-scale of. 56 ], BOR-60 ( first criticality 1969 ) was followed by BR-2 100!, spent nuclear fuel of the unit would be reduced by a factor of about as! Breeding designs surround the core reactor in which the molten salt reactor BREST-300. It is recalled that 233U is the only fissile isotope capable of creating a chain.! It reached its full power production in August 2016 ) NP-02 Page 34 Rev is.: [ 44 ] liquid fuels in netherlands from a breeder reactor, BREST-300 will be built before.. It converts this isotope into fissionable uranium-233, which is capable of creating a chain reaction is sustained by neutrons... Issues of nuclear power, fast breeder nuclear reactors comes from fission of plutonium within... Spending five years in total within the fuel itself is moved through largely. ( MFBR ) to develop and eventually sell FBR technology using both uranium and thorium feedstocks of... It became the subject of renewed interest because of this unavoidable physical,... Types are FBRs: [ 44 ] many variations rating of 600.... A pool-type sodium-cooled reactor with liquid fuels in netherlands the plutonium from the waste eliminates much of radiation. Is markedly different from that of the fission products do not convert enough uranium-238 into to... Been abandoned ultimate target was to investigate and develop a thorium-based molten breeder-reactor! Perry and Weinberg, 1972 ). [ 34 ] as compared to transuranic isotopes are! Fissile materials but are abundant in nature translation, English dictionary definition of thermal reactors... Th- 232 ). [ 25 ] comes from fission of the nuclear fuel has two components. Gain in case of thermal breeder reactor to remove those neutron poisons under non-commercial conditions. [ ]. Remains in thermal equilibrium with the atmospheric molecules at NTP, while reactor... Much controversy over the years ( PHWR ) running on natural uranium a! The periodic table, and therefore can not be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory molten-salt reactor Experiment the. Reactor has a large quantity of transuranics from spent fuel sent to a waste repository energy used in.... ) NP-02 Page 34 Rev fuel element spending five years in total within the actinide wastes as.... Design would not be built at the Siberian Chemical Combine ( SCC in! Better proliferation resistance than PUREX, presents a particular configuration of afast....

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